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1941, 1st Regiment of Russian Protective Corps
First fighting. Fierce winter of 1941. In the deep snow, in the center of Serbia, lies the Stolice mine. The guard is provided by the 1st cadet company and part of the 2nd cadet company of the 1st regiment of the Russian Corps. These are young people aged 17-30 years old, they were one of the first to respond to the call of General Skorodumov. The company commander is an old officer of the Imperial Army, Colonel Gordeev-Zaretsky, a proven educator of youth, who cemented in the hearts of young soldiers the love of the Motherland and the traditions of the glorious Russian Army.
The mine is located in a valley, surrounded by mountains. The posts are located on the tops on three sides. The 4th, the highest, “Goat Mountain,” was quite far from the center of the company’s location, so there was no post on it, and the 2nd platoon was stationed at the foot. There were no bunkers at that time, and the posts were in the open air or protected by logs of firewood. Everyone can understand how impatiently the cadets waited for their shift. And below, in the platoon, friends lit a stove red-hot so that the duty shift could dry out and warm up.
The terrain was unfavorable for defense, but the company commander thought through its plan well, and thanks to frequent alarms, each platoon and fighter knew their place, from which the entire terrain ahead was well bombarded. At this time, communist gangs attacked the location of our units.
December 8, 1941, surprisingly, turned out to be a beautiful day, unlike others with constant fog and snowstorm. The cadets, free from duty, after finishing the lectures given by the company commander and platoon commanders, rested in their quarters. It was about 4 o’clock in the afternoon. Suddenly a single shot broke the silence. This is no accident – everyone thought, because… Single shooting at odd hours was strictly prohibited and was punishable by being assigned to work or peeling potatoes out of turn. This shot was followed by another, a third, and a machine gun burst. The company duty officer sounded the alarm. In an instant, the machine gunners took up their positions and, under the cover of their fire, the entire company took its positions. For one moment there was complete silence. The enemy was spotted – a machine-gun nest on Goat Mountain. A short command and friendly fire silenced the enemy machine gun. At this time, from the side of the 2nd platoon and from “Kozaya Gora” the enemy launched an offensive, but the cadets did not sleep, with hurricane fire for 1-2 minutes they forced the enemy to delay for a moment, and that was enough. 2nd platoon, with the support of 1st platoon, shouting “Hurray!” rushes to attack. Junker of the 2nd platoon Fortel shoots the communist leader Vuk at point-blank range. The bullets of our fighters accurately fell the enemy, who did not have time to hide behind the mountain.
At the same time, the 4th Platoon and part of the 2nd Company climb the mountain, supported by fire from the 3rd Platoon, which is in reserve. The enemy forces the platoons to lie down with strong fire, but the 3rd platoon frees the shackles of our soldiers with frantic rifle and machine-gun fire; the latter shouting “Hurray!” They rush forward through deep snow and with their fire and hand grenades knock out the enemy from the top of Goat Mountain. It’s getting dark… The glowing moths flicker less and less and disappear completely. The last friendly volley at the fleeing enemy. Silence… Only scarlet snow and many traces remind of what happened. There was not a single person killed in the company, only the cadet of the 4th platoon of the 1st company, Sergei Shaub, was seriously wounded in the side. This young 17-year-old fighter earned the 4th degree St. George Cross with his courage. The next day, our intelligence caught a communist courier. The report found on him said: “The Russians met us with mad fire and a swift attack. Having suffered heavy losses, we were forced to retreat.”
Who are these Russians? Who are these young fighters who heard the whistle of bullets for the first time? Where do they get their strength and courage? These are the sons and grandsons of glorious Russian miracle heroes who instilled in them from childhood: a sense of duty, love for the Motherland and hatred of its enslavers; and discipline, courage, and quick assessment of the situation helped them so successfully win their first baptism of fire. Many of these young Eagles went on to serve in command positions. Many are not among us, they died the death of the brave, honestly fulfilling their duty. Eternal memory to the dead! Glory to the living! (by A. Politansky)
2nd cadet company of the 1st regiment
The composition of the cadet company was homogeneous, the company consisted of former pupils of the cadet corps in Yugoslavia. Everyone knew each other, were among themselves on “you”. Spike, the cadet spirit remained in full force. Age ranged from 34 to 20 years. Youth, firm in their convictions and views. Almost all of them have already graduated from the cadet corps. Some of them were already engineers, geometers, technicians, students. There was even one doctor without a diploma, as if he had not completed the state exam. Despite the difference in years, from 10-12, it was a friendly cadet family. The company was excellent in its composition. True, at first the 3rd platoon of the company consisted of young people from 16-18 years old who had not graduated from the corps. There were still children.
Finally, the 2nd company was formed, completed a course in firing live ammunition, as well as initial field training. We are waiting to see where they will send us. Lots of rumors and talk. The general desire to go to the Eastern Front. And suddenly the order: tomorrow we will act. We load into wagons and move to Shabats – a common disappointment, but soon reconcile: “we are still going to beat the communists.” Performed November 20, 1941
The movement to the station, loading in Belgrade and further, from Šabac to Loznitsa, the cadet battalion made marching order, with full gear, i.e. rifle, 120 rounds of ammunition, a satchel with your own belongings and a blanket. It was hard to walk with such a burden, out of habit. The weather was unfavorable – rain, sleet. They walked slowly, stretching. The whole I battalion moved. The 1st cadet company was all on bicycles. The regimental commander was with us. On the first day we made half way to Loznitsa and spent the night in the village of Leshnitsa, where the junkers were placed in huts and sheds. Wet, tired, hungry, but soon dried up, had a snack and went to bed.
The next day we reached Loznitsa. Settled in “Cut off a bunch.” A day later, our combat work began, which ended only in 1945, after the surrender of the German army.
From Loznitsa, they launched an attack on Krupan, which was occupied by partisans. They advanced in three columns from three sides. Two German companies were advancing with us. They occupied Stolice, then occupied Krupan without a fight. After shooting a little, the partisans left Krupan. After the occupation of Krupan, the 1st cadet company became a garrison in the Stolitce, the 3rd – in Moikovichi, and the 2nd remained in Krupan.
The service is not easy, especially since the 1st and 2nd platoons moved to Stolitce and the 3rd and 4th platoons remained in Krupan. We settled in the hospital building, where there was not a single whole window. Around the forest and mountains. Krupan itself is half destroyed. No inhabitants. They knew about the enemy that shortly before our arrival, the partisans attacked the German company that occupied the hospital, and took most of the company away, killed some, and returned unharmed to Loznitsa.
Despite such an unattractive situation, the junkers behaved perfectly. At first, I had to spend whole nights with them, go around the posts and check the guards. They were not yet fired upon, and they studied the service for only two weeks in Topchider. They stood for three days in Krupan, when they received the task of dislodging the partisans from two villages, 3 kilometers from Krupan. The 3rd and 4th platoons of the 2nd cadet company, the 1st platoon of the 5th (technical) company and one couple of Serbian Chetniks, who already at that time began to fight against the communists, went. Trees were taken. In one attack, a German machine gun was repulsed from the partisans. Junkers received their first baptism of fire. After the capture of these villages, two raids were made on two farms, where there were quartermaster warehouses of partisans. Warehouses were rich. Their destruction was entrusted to the Chetniks.
After the Krupen region was cleared of partisans, the entire 2nd company was assembled in Loznitsa. When we returned to Loznitsa from Krupen, about 8-10 kilometers from Loznitsa, we were met by the commander of the regiment, General Zborowski, on a motorcycle, completely alone, without any escort, although the whole area was filled with partisans. The commander greeted us, thanked us for the combat work and said that this was only the beginning, the main thing was ahead.
Arriving in Loznitsa, the company began to serve in the bunkers around Loznitsa. I had to go to the guard in a day. The change took place at 9 o’clock. morning. From 10 am to 2 pm. Junkers rested for days. From 2 o’clock lectures on various military subjects began: tactics, topography, engineering, etc. In the spring of 1942, they made eye surveys and solved tactical tasks on the ground. There were also hours of drill practice and practical firing with live ammunition. Quite often they left Loznitsa to clear a certain area of partisans. There were skirmishes with partisans, and sometimes entire battles.
So, in February there was a battle with partisans near Mount Pyramid, between the villages of Sipulya and Tsvetulya, not far from Moikovichi. In this battle, the company commander, Colonel Eichholtz, was wounded in the arm, 6 cadets were wounded, of which one, seriously wounded, cadet Andrei Yakimov, died on March 9 in Shabets.
At the beginning of the summer of 1942, our company was transferred to the Zayacha mine. They served there in bunkers, occasionally going on expeditions. It was a rather calm period – the partisans did not dare to attack. The only disturbing moment we experienced was when, on a dry, windy day, partisans set fire to a forest not far from Zayach. The fire was rapidly approaching the mine. Mine workers and forest guards were mobilized. It was already heard, like cannon shots, how the trees burst from the intense heat and the fire quickly approached us. At this time, an order came to the junkers to go to put out the fire, but they did not have to go: suddenly a heavy downpour began, completely extinguishing the fire. And the fire came to the mine – it would be something to burn. There was a large sawmill, with a large supply of dry material, and there was also a pyroxylin warehouse in the amount of two wagons.
In June, an order came for the 2nd cadet company to move to the city of Aranzhelovac, as they said, to study “new German weapons.” The Loznica-Aranjelovac crossing was made in marching order. We did not study any “new weapons”, but carried the protection of the city. There was no German garrison there, but there was a large hospital where there were many sick and wounded officers of the German army. The commandant of the city was a major doctor, as the most senior in rank. In addition to the guards, they made exits to the neighborhood to fight the partisans. In Aranzhelovac, the cadets were intensively studying both in military subjects and in formation. I also managed to take a course of shooting according to the German charter.
In July, we were replaced by the 3rd Junker (Indian) company, but we were transferred to the Drina River, from the city of Lyuboviya in the direction of Vyshegrad. The platoon company occupied a number of villages along the river bank. The distance between the villages was 9-11 km. Platoons were small. So, for example: the village of Vrkhpolye, 9 km from Lyuboviya, was occupied by the 3rd platoon, in which there were 17 people. We were in close contact with the Serbian border guards, but they were not particularly trusted. The biggest trouble was with the Ustashe, who occupied the opposite bank of the river and constantly hunted for the Serbs on our side of the Drina. They killed one Serb woman who was digging potatoes on the river bank. But when one day they fired at our groom who was watering the horses in the Drin, we had to call the head of the Ustashe outpost and warn him that if even one shot was fired in our direction, then I would put our three machine guns and fire at the hut where the outpost was located until it I won’t break it, and I will inform the German command through our command about their behavior. The shooting in our area has stopped.
Very good attitude was to us from the side of the population. At that time, each platoon received allowances independently on the cash advance received. Of the junkers, there was both an artel worker and a cook. They brought us all kinds of food and tobacco very willingly, when they found out that we paid for everything, while neither the partisans nor the Serbian border guards paid for anything.
In September 1942, the cadets of the 2nd company were assembled in the city of Lyuboviya, where our 2nd platoon was stationed, with the temporary commander of the company, Lieutenant Colonel Kotlyar, where, after a prayer service, the battalion commander, General. Zenkevich read the order on the promotion of all cadets who had passed the exam to second lieutenants. The car “Maritsa” known to the 1st Regiment brought young lieutenants to Vrkhpolya and the service of second lieutenants as privates continued as before.
In November of the same year, the 2nd company from Loznitsa, through Klenak, was transferred to Negotin, with its transfer to the 2nd regiment and, according to the new numbering, became the 7th company. They stayed in Negotin for the whole winter, carrying out guard duty and making frequent exits to clean up and pursue partisans in the vicinity of Negotin.
In the spring of 1943, the company was transferred to the Bor mine, where it served in bunkers and went on expeditions against partisans. In Bor, the company stood until the formation of the 4th regiment. During the parking in Bor, the remnants of the disbanded 1st cadet company of the 1st regiment arrived in the 7th company, with the company commander Colonel Gordeev-Zaretsky, who took the post of junior officer of the 7th company. When the formation of the 4th, and then the 5th regiments began, many cadets from the 7th company were assigned to command non-commissioned officer positions. So, for example: in the 6th company of the 4th regiment, all non-commissioned officers and sergeant major positions were occupied by junkers of the 7th company, and in many companies the same thing.
From Bor, part of the junkers was sent to Banitsa, to lieutenant courses, which they successfully completed and served in the Corps in officer positions. Many by the end of the war were holders of the Iron Cross, and many laid down their lives in the mountains and snows of Bosnia.
The youth put a lot of effort and effort into it. The youth walked without thinking where they were sent. And it is a pity that, as a result of the unsuccessfully ended war, the former junkers of the 2nd company of the 1st regiment had to give up their military career and become emigrants again. With such a convinced, firm, brave youth, it would be possible to build a new Russia. Change would have been good for us, but failed (by A. Nevzorov)
On January 10, the 9th Hundred arrived in Leshnitsa to perform garrison service and guard bridges.
In connection with the expansion of the regiment to 12 hundred personnel, a reorganization was carried out on February 1: the 4th company was renamed the 5th; 5th – to 7th; The 7th Guards – into the 12th Guards, the 8th – into the 10th, the 4th, 8th and 11th hundreds were newly formed.
Location of units by February 1: Loznitsa – regimental headquarters, command center, headquarters of the 1st battalion, 2nd and 4th companies; Krupanj – headquarters of the 2nd battalion, 5th, 7th and 8th companies and 6th squadron; Zayach – headquarters of the 3rd battalion, 10th, 11th and 12th hundreds; Leshnitsa – 9th hundred; Stolice – 1st company; Moikovichi – 3rd company.
Horses for the 6th Squadron arrived in Sabac on 23 February.
The first permanent German liaison officer, Lieutenant Rahn, arrived in the regiment on 19 February.
The first major joint operation with the Chetniks by a detachment consisting of the 2nd, 3rd and 7th companies against the Reds in the Mojkovic-Osechina area began on February 25 and lasted six days, and the 2nd Junker Company managed to come into contact with the Reds on February 27 . The company entered the battle, which ended with the flight of the Reds. In this battle, the company commander, Colonel Eichholtz, and three cadets were wounded (essays: “2nd Junker Company” and “Our Youth”). Colonel Kotlyar took command of the company. During the pursuit of the Reds by the 7th company, on March 1, three people in the company were wounded.
The 1st battalion of the 3rd regiment arrived in Loznitsa on March 8. A regrouping was made and by March 15 the location of the units was as follows: Loznitsa – regimental headquarters, one hundred of the Directorate, 1st battalion; Krupanj – headquarters of the 2nd battalion, 4th, 5th, 7th and 8th companies; Zayach – 1st battalion of the 3rd regiment; Moikovichi – headquarters of the 3rd battalion and the 12th Guards Hundred; Bela Crkva – 11th hundred; Stolice – 10th hundred; Leshnitsa – 9th hundred and Sabac – 6th squadron.
In view of the emerging possibility of large Red forces crossing the Drina from Croatia to our shore, starting from March 22, intensive reconnaissance of villages along the Drina in the M. Zvornik – Nuline section was carried out. On March 26, an order was received to protect the Drina from M. Zvornik to Rogacica, for which the headquarters of the 1st battalion, the 1st and 3rd cadet companies were moved to Lyubovia, the 5th and 1st companies of the 3rd regiment were moved to Rogacica.
To clear the banks of the Drina from Drinjača to Ljubovija from the Reds, six bombers of the 3rd regiment and the 3rd cadet company crossed to Nuline on April 4 and with their fire helped the German units moving along the Croatian bank of the Drina enter Drinjača. The next day, the 3rd company returned to Lyubovia.
On April 9, the Croatian Ustashi fired at our coast in the area of Ljubovia, but after the return fire from our field guards they fled, making wild reprisals against Serbian refugees. Our units control the crossings, helping the Serbs cross to our shores.
To undergo a training course in the handling of modern weapons, the 2nd Junker Company, supplemented by platoons from the 2nd and 3rd battalions, set out for Arandjelovac on April 15. In this regard, the 9th hundred was transferred to Loznitsa.
To unite the actions of all units on the Drina, Colonel Rogozhin was sent to Lyubovia on April 22.
On April 29, along with reinforcements for the regiment, the 4th hundred of the 3rd regiment arrived in Loznitsa; the 6th squadron was concentrated in Leshnitsa.
The 1st battalion of the 3rd regiment left the area of the 1st regiment on May 14, and therefore the 4th and 9th hundreds arrived in Zayacha.
General Zinkevich, who took command of the 1st battalion, replaced Colonel Rogozhin on the Drina on May 17, who returned to Moikovich.
The training team, composed of ranks from all hundreds of the regiment, began its training on May 28.
To guard the northern section of the Drina (head of the section, Colonel Golovko), a regrouping was made on May 30: the 9th hundred was transferred to Prnjavor and other villages, the 4th hundred moved from Zayachi to Loznitsa, and the 8th from Krupnya to Zayacha; On June 20, the 4th hundred replaced the 3rd in V. Reka, and the 9th arrived in Loznitsa; June 23 3rd Jun. The company moved to Arandjelovac to replace the 2nd company, which arrived in Loznica on the 29th.
The newly formed artillery platoon was sent to Belgrade for training on June 9. On August 13, a PAK platoon arrived in Loznica from Belgrade under the command of Lieutenant Granitov.
On the occasion of the anniversary of the founding of the Corps, on September 12, a parade was held in Loznitsa, during which 186 cadets who graduated from military schools were promoted to officers – to second lieutenants.
At the regiment, for partisan actions, on October 21, a hunting team was formed under the command of Lieutenant Fleginsky.
The second half of 1942 was spent in constant small operations and intensified reconnaissance, due to which parts of the regiment changed their camps many times and by November 13 were garrisoned: Zayach – 1st and 2nd cadet companies (3rd cadet company on October 18 from Arandjelovca moved to Belgrade); Krupanj – 4th, 9th and 11th; Lyuboviya – 5th; Leshnitsa – 6th squadron; Tsuline – 7th; M. Zvornik – 8th; Stolice – 10th and Moikovich – 12th Guards. By telephone from the Corps headquarters on November 13, it was reported that the 1st regiment had been reorganized into a Cossack regiment, and therefore, on November 17, the 1st and 2nd cadet companies were sent from Loznitsa to Negotin, and arrived in Loznitsa: November 20 – 3- I and the 4th hundred 3rd regiment; December 2 in B. Kovilyachu – 5th and 6th hundred 2nd regiment; On December 3 they moved to Zvornik, and on the 4th to Tsulina.
Military Ataman of the Kuban Cossack Army, General Staff, Major General Naumenko visited the military units of the regiment on December 9; On December 10, the 5th and 7th companies were sent to the 3rd regiment; On December 26, the Don battalion of General Morozov arrived in Banya Kovilyacha without 9 hundreds; 29 Dec The 6th squadron departed from Leshnice station to Sabac to join the 3rd regiment; 6th hundred 3 Dec. returned to Zvornik.
The reorganization of the regiment was not yet completed by December 31st.
1943 structure and location of the regiment
The command structure of the regiment and the location of units on January 1, 1943 after reorganization into a Cossack regiment were as follows: Commander of the 1st battalion – Colonel Rogozhin – Krupan; commander of the Guards Hundred – Colonel Galushkin – Moikovich; 2nd hundred – Colonel Solyanik-Krassa-Krupan; 3rd – Colonel Shcherbakov – Stolice; commander of the 2nd battalion – Colonel Golovko – Lyuboviya; commander of the 5th hundred, Colonel Pashchenko – Lyuboviya; 6th – General Skvortsov – Zvornik; 7th – General Solomakhin – Tsuline: commander of the III battalion, General Morozov – B. Kovilyacha; commander of the 9th hundred – Colonel Folometov – Kraljevo; 10th – Colonel Shmelev – Zayach and 11th Colonel Sivolobov – B. Kovilyacha.
On January 18, the 9th hundred arrived from Kraljevo to B. Koviljača, and on the 24th moved to Krupanj.
On April 7, “a hundred free Cossacks” under the command of the troops of Sergeant Major A. Protopopov arrived from Belgrade to Loznica. The hundred was named the 7th hundred, and the old 7th hundred was merged into the hundreds of the 1st battalion.
From April 9 to April 17, Kuban Ataman of the General Staff, Major General Naumenko, stayed in the regiment, visiting all the garrisons.
Units of the regiment carried out reconnaissance almost daily in their areas, and on April 9, intensified reconnaissance was carried out with large forces in the Tisovik area (essay “Crossing the Alps”).
On May 8, the 12th hundred of the 2nd regiment of Colonel Buzun arrived in Loznitsa.
During May 11-15, a major operation was carried out in the Zapolye region, and on May 12, the 2nd platoon of the 5th hundred withstood a heavy battle with bandits (essay “Zapole”).
On May 18, having received information about the appearance of a detachment of communists, the regiment commander with a training team and a platoon of the 1st Guards Hundred moved to the village of Baban, where he met a group of communists who opened fire at point-blank range. The communists were put to flight by return fire.
On May 19, along the Valjevo-Loznitsa highway, a gang from the Kalabich detachment attacked a bus coming from Valjevo, accompanied by the guards of the 1st regiment, and five people were killed, Colonel Buzun and 4 Cossacks; 6 were wounded, 2 were beaten and sent home. Having received information about the attack, the regiment commander with a training team and a platoon of the 1st Guards Hundred went to the scene of the incident, where nearby houses were searched and arrests were made.
On June 8, an artillery platoon of Colonel Bugurayev arrived from Shabets to Loznitsa from the 2nd Regiment by train.
On June 26, four German border guards, in the area of Ljubovia, crossed the Drina River by boat for reconnaissance. The scouts were attacked by the Reds and, while leaving, reached the Drina far from the abandoned boat. Seeing the difficult situation of the scouts, the Cossacks of the 5th hundred Solienko Afanasy and Popov Vasily rushed to swim across the Drina, reached the boat, handed it to the scouts and safely delivered them to our shore, all the while being under enemy fire. The Corps commander, in his order No. 47, declared gratitude to the Cossacks for their correct understanding of the duty of mutual revenue.
From July 1 to July 8, General Morozov’s detachment fought to defend the bridge over the Drina River at Zvornik. 379 wounded Croatian soldiers and civilians passed through our units, fleeing from the communists, as well as over 1,000 healthy soldiers and at least 1,000 refugees of the same kind. Losses of the detachment: 2 killed and 17 wounded (essay “Cossack Glory”).
On July 19, during an expedition to the village of Nedelitsa, a hunting team and a squad of the 7th Hundred, General Staritsky was wounded during a firefight. The partisans had 4 killed and 4 wounded.
From August 26 to September 2, a change of garrisons took place over the course of several days: the 5th hundred moved to Loznitsa, and the 7th to Lyuboviya.
On September 20, in all garrisons of the regiment, proposals were received to conclude a secret agreement with Draza Mihailović’s units against the German forces, with threats of complete destruction if the proposal was not accepted. On the same day, a platoon of the 9th hundred troops of Sergeant Major Kolyshkin, sent on reconnaissance from Zayachi to Korenita, was attacked by surrounded bandits. The platoon defended for several hours and inflicted significant losses on the bandits (7 killed and 20 wounded), who fled the next morning. During the battle, military foreman Kolyshkin was wounded, 3 Cossacks were killed, and military foreman Antonov took command at times. Units sent to help from Zayachi and Loznitsa, on the morning of September 21, met the injured platoon, but no longer found the enemy. The platoon was commended by the Corps commander.
On September 24, the command personnel intended to form the 4th Regiment left for Belgrade.
On September 29, a Red detachment fired at our secret posts near Loznitsa. On the same day, the Reds reoccupied Zvornik and fired at the location of the 6th hundred in M. Zvornik. The commander of the 2nd battalion, Colonel Golovko, received a demand from the bandits to surrender their weapons.
On September 30, a second demand from the bandits to surrender their weapons was received in Lyubovik. In order to help Colonel Golovko break through to Loznica, a German company was sent from B. Koviljaca, which was ambushed in the Tsrncha area and lost 2 people killed and 3 wounded, trucks and bombs. The garrison of Lyubovia is blocked by the Chetniks.
On October 1, the 5th hundred was sent to guard the Lissa mine, in the area of the 3rd regiment. Two attacks on the Lyubovik garrison were repulsed. Two were wounded. The German company, hunting team and cavalry platoon were unable to get through to Lyubovia, which was only possible on October 2. On the same day, the advancing units, together with the garrison, left Lyubovia and on October 3, the headquarters of the 2nd battalion was located in M. Zvornik.
A convoy of the 1st battalion of 8 carts with overcoats and food was attacked near the village of Brezyak. Losses – 1 killed and 4 carts. The expelled units did not find the attackers.
On October 4, the 7th Hundred arrived in Loznitsa. A telephone message was received from the Corps commander expressing gratitude to Colonel Golovko and all the ranks of his detachment for the exemplary performance of duty during four days, when the headquarters of the 2nd battalion and the 7th hundred were cut off from the regiment.
On November 14 and 16, the Reds entered Zvornik and tried to blow up the bridge, but were driven back by the fire of the 6th hundred. On the 14th, an attack was made on the Erzgof estate, and Captain Persianov was wounded.
On November 29, by order of the Commander-in-Chief of the South-East, it was announced that in the area south of Belgrade to Kragujevac and Aranjelovec, a truce had been concluded between the German command and the Chetniks of Draza Mihailovic for joint actions against the communists from November 30 to December 31, 1943.
Training hundreds arrived in Loziica. The 1st is on December 8, and the 2nd is on the 12th.
On December 24, the command staff intended to form the 5th regiment, led by Colonel Rogozhin, left for Banitsa.
Throughout the year, units of the regiment carried out reconnaissance almost daily and often changed their camps.
On December 31, the command structure and disposition of the regiment’s units were as follows:
The commander of the 1st battalion, General Skvortsov – Krupan; 1st Guards Hundred – military foreman Lugovsky – Moikovich; 2nd – Colonel Dubina – Krupan; 3rd – Colonel Shcherbakov – two platoons in Krupna and one in B. Crkva.
Commander of the 2nd battalion – Colonel Golovko – M. Zvornik; 5th hundred – General Solomakhin – Lissa; 6th – Colonel Tretyakov – M. Zvornik; 7th – military foreman Protopopov A. – Krupan.
The commander of the III battalion, General Morozov – Zayach; 9th Hundred of the General Staff, Lieutenant Colonel Khokhlachev – Zayach; 10th – Colonel Shmelev – Zayacha and 11th – Colonel Sivolobov – Stolice.
1944 Battles of the 1st regiment of the Russian Protective Corps
The regiment continued to perform two main tasks:
1) Security of objects within the area of their location. In this area there were numerous detachments of Chetniks under the general command of Major Racic. Without being in hostile relations with the Chetniks, but not forgetting their repeated treachery in the past, parts of the regiment had to be always on guard and carefully monitor all their movements and actions. This necessitated almost daily reconnaissance from all parts of the regiment.
2) Monitoring the Drina River to prevent partisans from crossing to our shore. This task boiled down to a thorough reconnaissance of the area west of Zvornik. The partisans, based in the Shekovichi-Papraca-Osmatsi area (headquarters of the 4th Army and the headquarters of the 3rd Corps), had airfields near Rakino Brdo, to which British planes regularly landed, unloading weapons, uniforms and food, and taking the wounded and sick from here partisan Numerous detachments of Chetniks, Croatian Ustashas and legionnaires, Muslim detachments, units of the Bosnian SS division and the German division of Prince Eugene of Savoy acted against the partisans in this area. Careful monitoring of all actions across the Drina River required very painstaking work from the units and regimental headquarters.
On January 5, near the Klenka station, partisans attacked a train; Three Cossacks were killed.
On January 9, the 5th hundred, while at the Lissa factory, together with the 7th company of the 3rd regiment repelled an attack by partisans. A telephone message dated January 19 expressed gratitude to the hundred from the Commander-in-Chief of the South-East. On February 10, the hundred returned to the regiment and arrived in Krupanj on the 13th. The 2nd hundred moved to Loznica, on the 14th – to M. Zvornik, on the 16th – to Lyubovia, and on March 13th – to Zvornik.
On March 11, Donskoy Ataman, Lieutenant General Tatarkin, arrived in Loznitsa by train from Shabets and went to Zayacha and Stolice to inspect the Don battalion. On March 17 I went back to Belgrade.
On April 1, in connection with the end of the 8-week training, the 1st and 2nd training hundreds were renamed into the 3rd and 9th regular hundreds. The former 3rd and 9th hundreds were disbanded and went to staff their battalions.
Since the beginning of April, single enemy aircraft have been observed flying over the regiment’s location every night. They signal with rockets and receive signals from the ground with rockets and fires. Periodically, large formations of Anglo-American aviation fly over the regiment’s location to bomb Belgrade, Budapest, etc.
April 22 Regrouping: the headquarters of the 1st battalion moved from Krupnia to Zvornik, and the 2nd battalion to Krupań, the 3rd hundred to B. Koviljača, the 9th to Loznica. There was an attack on the convoy of the 3rd battalion, which was heading to Zayacha.
On April 28, in connection with receiving information about the intention of the 16th and 17th partisan divisions to cross the Drina River from Bosnia to Serbia, on the Zvornik-Vaina Basta section, the 1st battalion of the 5th regiment arrived in Loznica (the next day it returned to Valjevo), and in M. Zvornik – 5th company of the 5th regiment. The headquarters of the 3rd regiment of the Serbian Volunteer Corps arrived in B. Koviljaca.
On May 2, according to information from the partisans received through residents, Tito’s headquarters is located in Banja Luka.
On May 16, the garrison in Moikovichi was abolished, and therefore the 1st Guards Hundred moved to camp in B. Kovilyacha. Moikovichi was occupied by the Chetniks.
Almost every night during May, June and July, British planes dropped ammunition and food to the partisans in the Nedelishte area and parachuted British instructor officers.
On May 24, the headquarters of the 3rd battalion moved from Zayache to Loznitsa.
On May 25, the 5th company of the 5th regiment was sent to its regiment.
On June 12, the 1st Guards Hundred moved to Loznica after the arrival of units of the Serbian Volunteer Corps in B. Koviljaca. According to agents, the senior Chetnik commanders are apparently inclined to submit to Tito, but the mass of the Chetniks still want to fight the communists. It was ordered, while nominally maintaining peaceful relations with the Chetniks, to avoid communication with them. Around July 15, the commander of one of the Chetnik brigades, the General Staff, Major Radoslav Djuric, went over with his brigade to the Reds. He addressed in the Partisan Bulletin with an appeal to all Chetniks to go over to Tito.
On July 17, in view of the upcoming operation in the Zvornik area, the III battalion of the 5th regiment arrived with a train from Shabets to B. Koviljaca and on July 20 occupied the section of the Drina from Zvornik to Tsrncha, and in the Zvornik area the maneuver group of General Morozov was concentrated as part of the 3rd, 6th and 9th hundreds, artillery and horse platoons.
On August 10, the III Battalion of the 5th Regiment moved from the M. Zvornik area to B. Koviljaca, where it loaded onto wagons and left for Sabac.
In the Stolice, the commander of the 11th hundred, Colonel Sivolobov, while checking the outpost at night, was seriously wounded by an hour-long rifle shot in his left hand. He was evacuated to Sabac, where his wounded arm was immediately amputated (he was slightly deaf and did not hear the sentry’s call).
On August 21, an airplane flying over Stolice dropped 9 parachutists. Three reconnaissance units were immediately sent from the Stolice, which established that the American paratroopers had fallen into the hands of the Chetniks. Five of them were brought to Zavlaka, where the Chetniks, assuming that the other four had fallen to us, presented the commander of the 2nd battalion in Krupna with a demand to hand over the Americans to them, threatening otherwise to burn Krupani. The Krupnya garrison declared a combat alert, but no incidents occurred with the Chetniks. According to those who personally saw the Americans, they were greeted very cordially by the Chetniks and local residents.
On August 24, in view of the events in Romania, the North-West region declared a 1st degree alarm in all garrisons of the 1st regiment and warned of the possibility of the regiment’s imminent movement. British planes dropped a large amount of food in the vicinity of Srebrenica and Zvornik, which fell on the Croatian units.
On September 1, a steamship sailing from Belgrade to Sabac along the Sava River ran into a mine dropped from an airplane at night. The explosion occurred near Umka, killing up to 100 people, including regiment ranks.
On September 1, the partisans attacked Bajina Basta in large forces, fighting with the Chetniks and units of the SDK (Serbian Volunteer Corps). This was the beginning of the situation that at the end of September forced the 1st Regiment to leave the Loznitsa area after a three-year stay there.
At the meeting on September 5, a guarantee was reached for the Chetniks not to attack our garrisons and to send all free Chetniks to help KFOR in the Bajina Bashta area. In addition, the Chetniks sent their delegates to Loznica for communication and joint action.
On September 6, due to the abolition of the garrison in B. Tserkov, a platoon of the 7th hundred from B. Tserkov arrived in Krupanj.
On September 8, the Montania-Antimon enterprises in the Stolice, B. Tserkov and Krupnya stopped working. From Loznica to Sabac and further to Belgrade, 135 wives and children of ranks of the 1st regiment were sent by special train for their further evacuation to Germany.
On September 9, taking into account the advance of the partisans from the southeast (Baina Basta), North-West region, the 1st Regiment was ordered to guard the area limited from the southeast by the Crncha-Krupanj line. The Chetniks actually seized administrative power into their own hands. Even in Loznica they changed the city administration. Their commandant appears daily with messages to regimental headquarters. At the same time, despite external loyalty, through agitation, proclamations and treats they strive to persuade the ranks of the regiment to come over to their side, guaranteeing them immunity. Submitted by agents, the British gave the Chetniks an ultimatum – to submit to Tito by September 15. The Chetniks in Bosnia are apparently conspiring with the Muslims to act against the occupying forces if they leave.
September 12, according to the order of the North-West region, our units, under fire from the advanced units of the Reds, retreated from Zvornik to B. Zvornik, losing 2 killed and 3 wounded.
September 13, the combined battalion of General Morozov (2nd, 3rd and 9th hundreds) set out for transfer to Valyevo, where the Reds were advancing. In Zvornik, the Reds set fire to the bridge, and there is a continuous exchange of rifle, machine-gun and bomb fire across the Drina.
On September 15, due to the cleansing of the garrisons of Krupnya and the Stolice, the 7th hundred moved to Moikovich. The combined battalion of General Morozov on the bridge over the Bukovitsa River (7 km west of Valjevo) came into contact with the Reds, with whom they fought all day. At first the battle went well, but with the onset of darkness the battalion had difficulty breaking out of encirclement and retreated, losing 2 killed and 2 wounded ranks of the 3rd hundred.
On September 16, our last units – the headquarters of the 2nd battalion and the 5th hundred – left Krupanj. During the day the Reds occupied Valjevo, but by evening it was again occupied by our units. Significant Red forces crossed from Bosnia between Rogačica and Banna Basta.
On September 17, the 2nd battalion (5th and 7th hundred) moved to Radal, and the combined battalion went to the rear in red, overthrew them and was driven to the village of Prichevich, losing 9 wounded; spent the night in Kamenitsa, where on the morning of September 18 he was attacked. The battalion emerged from the encirclement, repelling the attack, losing Lieutenant Markin and 14 wounded. On the same day, the North-West region informed the regiment of the task: to act according to circumstances, generally covering the direction to the north along the Batar-Kostaynik-Moikovich line. Our units – the headquarters of the 1st battalion, the 6th hundred, a platoon of the 11th hundred and 1 PAK gun – left M. Zvornik and arrived in Batar, and in the evening they retreated to B. Kovilyacha.
On September 19, the 10th hundred and 2 platoons of the 11th left Zayacha, arrived in Loznitsa and occupied a line from the southern outskirts of Loznitsa to the Drina. The Reds approached B. Koviljacha and opened fire on the city. There was a case when the Chetniks of Leka Damnjanovic disarmed the squad of the 6th hundred, when this squad was exchanging fire with the Reds, and when the squad headed towards their own, they shot at it!
On September 20, small groups of Reds approached Loznitsa from the south, but were repulsed by fire from 10 hundreds. The combined battalion of General Morozov arrived in Loznitsa, where the garrison of B. Koviljachi also retreated. By evening, the entire regiment concentrated in Loznitsa and took up positions: 1st battalion – from the Drina to the outskirts of Loznitsa on the highway to B. Kovilyacha, 2nd battalion – further to Valevskoe highway, 3rd battalion occupied the inner defense belt (bunker) and retreated near the church, appearing in at the same time regimental reserve.
On September 22, the main forces of the Reds occupied Dvorska, Stolitce and Kostajnik and continued the offensive in the direction of Draginac. In the evening, the convoy of the 1st regiment was sent from Loznica to Leshnitsa.
On September 23, the Reds, approaching Loznitsa, at 8 o’clock in the evening opened fire on the city with machine guns and bombs and surrounded the city in threes. Local residents also opened fire from the windows and roofs of many houses. Soon the battle began on the streets of the city, gradually moving towards its center. Having reached the highway, the Reds fired at a car convoy at the station and captured it.
With a bayonet attack, the 2nd hundred from the front, and the German workers’ company from the flanks, overthrew the Reds and cleared the way to Sabac. Due to the impossibility of further clearing the city of the Reds in the dark, the regiment was ordered to stretch out along the highway to Sabac. At 22:00 units began to leave the city. Their movement was covered by the 1st Guards Hundred located behind the station to the northwest of the highway and the 10th to the southeast, which with their fire held back the Reds’ attempts to approach the highway and pursue the regiment. Losses: 7 killed, 23 wounded.
By the morning of September 24, units of the regiment, having crossed the Jadar River, took up positions to the right and left of the bridge over the Jadar on the highway southwest of Leshnitsa. At 5 o’clock the advanced units of the Reds approached the Yadar River and tried to take possession of the bridge, but were repulsed by our fire. The 11th hundred experienced especially strong pressure. According to the Chetniks, the main forces of the 12th Communist Corps of 3-4 thousand people are located on the Gučevo massif, with the task of capturing the Cer massif for a further attack on Sabac. By evening, the regiment took up the position: III battalion from the Drina to the bridge, I battalion – from the bridge to the railway, II battalion in reserve in Leshnitsa. At 11 p.m. the Reds launched a vigorous attack on our positions that lasted all night. Under pressure from the enemy, who developed heavy fire, the 3rd and 1st battalions retreated to the outskirts of Leshnitsa. Losses: 2 killed, wounded?.
On the morning of September 25, the 1st and 2nd battalions went on the offensive and, having inflicted heavy losses on the enemy, drove them back across the Yadar River, again occupying our previous position. 3 were killed, 2 were wounded, including Lieutenant Kolyshkin.
On September 26, the Reds bypassed our left flank and occupied Novo Selo, i.e. The regiment was cut off from Shabets. By order of the North-West region, at 18:00 the regiment began to withdraw from its positions and pull out from Leshnitsa. The 9th Hundred, marching in the vanguard, was met with fire, but went on the attack, repulsed the Reds and fought off the Reds’ attempts to cut off the path of the retreating regiment. Directly behind the hundred, under heavy fire, the entire regiment moved, firing back and repelling the onslaught of the Reds from the flank. In one of these skirmishes on the streets of Novo Selo, General Zborovsky was mortally wounded by a bullet in the stomach and was immediately taken to Sabac for surgery. General Morozov took command of the regiment. The regiment arrived in the village of Zminyak, where it took a short rest. Losses: Hauptmann Khokhlachev and Ltn were wounded. Kravchenko Igor, 10 killed, 43 wounded.
On September 27 at 3 o’clock the Reds surrounded Zminyak on three sides and opened heavy fire from close ranges. Parts of the regiment, firing back, began to enter the Shabatsky highway. The 6th, 10th and 1.1st hundreds, being surrounded by the Reds, attacked in a southern direction and put the enemy to flight and retreated to positions towards the village of Slepchevich, and then the entire regiment withdrew and took up a position near the Dublje railway station. In Shabets, in the Russian hospital, General Zborovsky was visited by the commander of the S.-West region, Oberst Hug, who presented him with the Order of the Iron Cross, 2nd class. This was the first Iron Cross in the 1st Regiment.
On September 28, in the morning, the Reds launched an attack on the regiment’s positions near Dublier and pressed the left flank, where hundreds of the 1st Battalion, caught in the crossfire and suffering significant losses, retreated a little. A counterattack by other hundreds of regiments restored the situation. In the evening, the Reds launched an offensive again, trying to bypass the flanks of the regiment and go to the rear. Having used up all reserves, the regiment broke away from the enemy and moved to Shabats through the village of Mayur. Losses: ltn killed. Donskoye, Major Skvortsov was wounded, ob.-ltn. Zerschikov, Hauptmann Dubina, ob.-ltn. Shramko et al. Chernyaev, 8 killed, 34 wounded Cossacks.
On September 29, the 1st and 3rd battalions arrived in Sabac in the morning, and the 2nd battalion remained in the village of Majur, which ended the rearguard battles during the withdrawal from Loznica. Parts of the regiment were very tired from battles and marches in difficult conditions, since it had been raining continuously since September 25th. At night, people did not have rest for 7 days. Losses from September 12 to 29. – 240 people Hundreds had an average of 60 people. These circumstances forced the North-West region to order the regiment to be reorganized into two battalions. Command structure: commander of the 1st battalion – Major Golovko, 1st hundred – Hauptmann Lugovsky, 2nd – Hauptmann Shcherbakov, 3rd – Hauptman. Tretyakov, commander of the 2nd battalion – guardhouse Shmelev, 4th (later 7th) hundred – ob.-ltn. Fartukhov, 5th – ob.-ltn. Tropin and 6th – lti. Svekolkin, a hundred heavy weapons – vol.-ltn. Zvezdin.
From September 30 to October 22, units of the regiment occupied positions first in the outer and then in the inner sector of the defense of Shabets and around Klenk, regularly repelling Red attacks and conducting reconnaissance. Losses: wounded ltn. Staritsky et al. Malakhov, 2 killed and 19 wounded.
On October 22, units of the 2nd Regiment and individual ranks of various units of the Corps joined the regiment.
On October 9, General Zborovsky died from his wounds in Graz. Order R.P.C. No. 280 of October 11, 1944:
“In Graz, the valiant commander of the 1st Cossack priest, Oberst Zborovsky Viktor, died from wounds received in battles with the Reds. From the first day of the formation of the R.K. Oberst Zborovsky was in our ranks. Commanding the 1st regiment, he was for 3 years, with constant energy and exemplary courage he led the unit entrusted to him. In all the battles of his regiment, he was always in the forefront, setting an example of courage and fulfillment of duty. A number of awards, including the Iron Cross, distinguished the outstanding military service of the deceased. All the activities of Oberst Zborovsky were imbued with “with love for the Motherland and service to Russia and the Cossacks. With deep respect I honor the memory of my faithful and noble assistant, the fallen hero – Oberst Zborovsky, this knight without fear and reproach. May God rest his bright soul. Lieutenant General Shteifon.”
On October 23, in view of receiving an order to abandon Shabets and Klenk, the regiment set out from Klenk as part of a common column and arrived in Lacharak by nightfall, and on the 24th moved to Tovarnik. Here the regiment received the task of strengthening its positions, with the 1st battalion remaining in Tovarnik, and the 2nd battalion moving to Ilintsi, with the task of conducting reconnaissance. Soviet air raids began.
November 3, a heavy weapons battalion was formed under the command of Major Skvortsov, consisting of: battalion headquarters, hundreds of heavy weapons, an artillery platoon and a PAK platoon.
November 5, moving on to new work in the Adashevtsi area, on November 12, the 1st battalion was sent by rail through Vinkovtsi to Brčko. On November 13, he arrived at Gunya station and moved to the village of Chelich. The regimental headquarters arrived in Brcko on the 14th, and the II Battalion on November 15th. On the same day, a platoon of hundreds of heavy weapons went to support the III battalion of the 2nd regiment, which was fighting near the village of Brka, and lost 2 killed and 2 wounded. The regiment was ordered to occupy strongholds in the villages of Omerbegovacha, Pukish, Cheyaich and Shokchichi. Čelich occupied the 1st battalion, and the rest of the villages – the 2nd. In Gukje – 2nd category convoy and in Brčko – the regiment’s economic establishments.
November 17, intensive reconnaissance activity of all units of the regiment began, and on November 24, a change of battalions took place. While walking around positions in Chelkcha, on November 26, we came across a mine and were seriously wounded: guardhouse. Shmelev, vol.-ltn. Zvezdin and ltn, Chupryna. Major Skvortsov took command of the 2nd battalion, the headquarters of the heavy weapons battalion was abolished (essays “Brchko-Celich” and “Artillery Platoon of the 1st Regiment”).
December 8, a regrouping began with the occupation of villages north of the Sava River: the 1st Guards Hundred, with the support of tanks, occupied the village of Vrbanya. The Reds, fired at by the 1st hundred, retreated to the village of Solyani, the 3rd hundred moved to Rachinovtsi, and the 6th to Gunya.
December 10, the headquarters of the 1st battalion moved to Gunja, and the regimental headquarters to Brčko.
On December 11, the Reds approached the village of Vrbanya. Having entered the battle, the 1st hundred put up staunch resistance and knocked out the enemy who had penetrated the village, and 43 killed Reds were found.
December 12 and 13, the Reds continued their attack on the 1st hundred. During these same days, the 3rd hundred conducted firefights and reconnaissance.
December 17, the 1st hundred moved to Gunya, and the 3rd and 6th hundreds moved to the village of Grbeta;
On the 18th, the headquarters of the 1st battalion moved to Shokchichi. By evening, units of the Reds appeared at Vrsani. Information was received that the Reds’ task was to occupy Brcko in order to cut off German units in Bijeljina.
During December 21 and 22, the Reds advanced on Čelich and Pukiš. Ltn was wounded. Boyko and 3 ranks of the 6th and 2nd hundred.
December 24, a telephone message was received: “To Major Skvortsov. I thank the Chelic garrison and you for your brave actions. General Shteifon.” On the same day, a new regrouping was made: the headquarters of the 1st battalion, the 3rd hundred and the PAK platoon – in Drenovtsi, the 1st hundred – in Solyani, the 2nd – in Rachinovtsi, the 6th – in Chelic. Until the end of the year, the Reds exchanged fire with our guards in Chelic.
The withdrawal of the main part of the German troops from Greece is completed.